1. COVID-19 pandemic: The outbreak and subsequent response to the global pandemic had a monumental impact on financial markets worldwide. Governments implemented lockdown measures and central banks intervened with unprecedented stimulus packages to stabilize economies, leading to fluctuations in markets.
2. US Presidential Election: The US presidential election in 2020 was closely watched by global markets. Uncertainty surrounding the outcome, as well as potential policy changes depending on the winner, influenced market sentiment throughout the year.
3. Brexit: The ongoing negotiations between the United Kingdom and the European Union regarding their future relationship had significant implications for global financial markets. The uncertainty surrounding the outcome of the negotiations affected investor sentiment and led to volatility in markets.
4. US-China Trade War: The trade tensions between the United States and China continued to impact global financial markets. Tariffs, trade restrictions, and geopolitical tensions between the two largest economies in the world contributed to market volatility and affected investor confidence.
5. Central Bank Actions: The monetary policy decisions of major central banks, such as the US Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank, and the Bank of Japan, had noteworthy impacts on global financial markets. Interest rate cuts, quantitative easing measures, and other policy interventions influenced market conditions throughout the year.
6. Geopolitical tensions in the Middle East: Various geopolitical events in the Middle East, such as the tensions between the United States and Iran, had implications for global financial markets. Escalating conflicts and concerns about oil supply disruption affected oil prices and, consequently, market stability.
7. Protests and political unrest: Social and political unrest in several countries, including Hong Kong, Belarus, and Thailand, had repercussions on global financial markets. Investors monitored the developments in these countries, as they could potentially disrupt trade and investment patterns.
8. European Union Recovery Fund: The agreement on the European Union Recovery Fund represented a significant political event that impacted global financial markets. The stimulus package aimed to support EU member states affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and contributed to market optimism about the region’s economic recovery.
9. US-China Phase One Trade Deal: The signing of the Phase One trade deal between the United States and China provided a temporary respite to their trade tensions. The deal aimed to address some of the issues related to intellectual property theft and trade imbalances, boosting market sentiment and reducing uncertainty.
10. Social policy developments: Various social policy decisions, such as protests for racial equality and the impact of climate change, influenced global financial markets. Investor sentiment and market valuations were affected by these events as companies were pressured to address social issues.